The KBR Advanced Ammonia Process (KAAP™ Process) flow sheet combines a conventional reforming front end using KBR's proven Top-Fired Steam Methane Reformer (SMR) with KBR's proprietary KAAP™ Ammonia Synthesis Loop.
KAAP™ technology has been licensed for four commercially-successful grass roots ammonia plants operating in Trinidad, each with a nameplate capacity of 1850 MTPD, with a fifth Trinidad KAAP plant due to start up in 2009. A sixth KAAP™ plant with a nameplate capacity of 2000 MTPD will be commissioned in Egypt the first quarter of 2009, and a seventh 1800 MTPD KAAP plant is under construction in Venezuela with a scheduled completion in 2010. The first two grass roots KAAP™ ammonia plants in Trinidad have been operating successfully since 1998.
The high-activity KAAP™ catalyst allows the KAAP™ ammonia synthesis loop to operate at pressures much lower than conventional ammonia synthesis loops using the Haber Process of wustite iron-based, or magnetite (90 bar vs. 140-170 bar), which significantly reduces design complexity and capital equipment costs.
KBR employs its well-proven top-fired steam-methane primary reformer operating at high pressure coupled with secondary reforming using the stoichiometric amount of process air to efficiently convert natural gas into hydrogen and carbon oxide syngas.
Read more about KBR's Top-Fired Steam Methane Reformer (SMR).
KAAP features ammonia synthesis over a proprietary promoted ruthenium on graphite catalyst that has an intrinsic activity ten to twenty times higher than conventional magnetite (or wustite) catalyst. This well-proven catalyst allows efficient ammonia synthesis at only 90 bar synloop pressure, which is two-thirds to one-half the operating pressure required for conventional ammonia synthesis. As a result of this lower pressure, only a single-case synthesis gas compressor is needed and vessel and pipe wall thicknesses are reduced throughout the synthesis loop, which reduces design complexity and equipment costs.
Read more about KBR's KAAP™ (KBR Advanced Ammonia Process) Converter.